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Similarly, in the autonomous region of Puntland the Puntland State of Somalia was self-proclaimed in the northeast.
There was, however, hope that the new government would usher in a new era, one in which peace would be achieved and Somalis could focus on rebuilding their country.
Somalia is bounded by the Gulf of Aden to the north, by the Indian Ocean to the east, by Kenya and Ethiopia to the west, and by Djibouti to the northwest.
As a result, Somali communities are also found in Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Kenya, and the border remains a source of dispute.
The Somali peninsula consists mainly of a tableland of young limestone and sandstone formations. In the extreme north, along the Gulf of Aden, is a narrow coastal plain called the Guban , which broadens northward toward the port of Berbera.
This gives way inland to a maritime mountain range with a steep north-facing scarp. Near Ceerigaabo Erigavo a mountain called Surud Cad reaches the highest elevation in the country, about 7, feet 2, metres.
To the south are the broad plateaus of the Galgodon or Ogo Highlands and the Sool and Hawd regions, which drop gradually southward toward the Indian Ocean.
In southern Somalia the crystalline bedrock outcrops to the south of Baydhabo Baidoa in the shape of granite formations called inselbergs.
These give way farther south to alluvial plains, which are separated from the coast by a vast belt of ancient dunes stretching more than miles 1, km from south of Kismaayo Chisimaio to north of Hobyo Obbia.
The flatness of the Somalian plateaus is interrupted by several deep valleys. Starting in the northeast, these are the Dharoor and Nugaaleed Nogal valleys ; both are wadis that, in season, have rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean at Xaafuun and Eyl, respectively.
Since then several warlords have set up their own ministates in Puntland and Jubaland. Although internationally unrecognized, these states have been peaceful and stable.
In Aug. In Oct. Parliament selected a national president in September, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, the president of the breakaway region of Puntland.
The new government, however, spent its first year operating out of Kenya—Somalia remained too violent and unstable to enter—eventually settling in the provincial town of Baidoa.
On June 6, the Islamist militia seized control of the capital, Mogadishu, and established control in much of the south.
Somalia's transitional government, led by President Abdullahi Yusuf and situated in Baidoa, spent months engaged in unsuccessful peace negotiations with the Islamic Courts Council.
In the meantime, neighboring Ethiopia, which has clashed in the past with Somalia's Islamists and considers them a threat to regional security, began amassing troops on the border.
In mid-December, Ethiopia launched air strikes against the Islamists, and in a matter of days Ethiopian ground troops and Somali soldiers loyal to the transitional government regained control of Mogadishu.
A week later most of the Islamists had been forced to flee the country. Ethiopia announced that its troops would remain in the country until stability was assured and a functional central government had been established, ending Somalia's 15 years of anarchy.
In Jan. The air strikes were strongly criticized in a number of Muslim countries, which accused the Americans of killing Somali civilians.
Battles between the insurgents and Somali and Ethiopian troops intensified in March, leaving civilians dead in what has been called the worst fighting in 15 years.
The fighting created a humanitarian crisis, with more than , Somalis fleeing the fighting in Mogadishu in just two months. In July, a national reconciliation conference opened in Mogadishu but was quickly postponed when leading opposition figures failed to appear.
The fighting intensified once again in October. The Alliance for the Reliberation of Somalia, a coalition of moderate Islamist leaders, and the transitional government agreed to a cease-fire in June that called on Ethiopian troops that were propping up the fragile government to be replaced by UN troops.
The future of the deal was tenuous from the start and was greeted by much skepticism. Indeed, it was unclear if the UN could assemble a force willing to be deployed to the troubled region, and several powerful Islamist groups did not participate in the negotiations.
It allied itself with al-Qaeda and won the support of many local warlords, primarily in the south. The group has raised alarms in the U. The group seeks to return Somalia to an Islamist state and has intimidated civilians with stonings, by chopping off hands, and by banning many forms of technology, while continuing to wage war against the transitional government.
Al-Shabab has taken advantage of the power vacuum and weak transitional government. By February , the group controlled almost all of southern Somalia.
Located in the Horn of Africa, Somalia occupies an area of , sq. As observed on the physical map above, the terrain of the country features plains, plateaus, and highlands.
A large part of the Somali peninsula is a tableland. To the extreme north, a narrow semidesert coastal plain that varies in width from around 12 km in the west to only 2 km in the east, borders the Gulf of Aden.
It is called Guban. Beyond this plain is the maritime mountain range of the Karkaar Mountains marked on the map hosting the highest point in the country, the 2, m tall Mount Shimbiris.
The range extends from the country's border with Ethiopia in the west up to the tip of the Horn of Africa. At first listen, Somali music might be mistaken for the sounds of nearby regions such as Ethiopia, Sudan or the Arabian Peninsula, but it is ultimately recognizable by its own unique tunes and styles.
Somali songs are usually the product of collaboration between lyricists midho , songwriters laxan and singers codka or "voice".
Somali scholars have for centuries produced many notable examples of Islamic literature ranging from poetry to Hadith. With the adoption of the Latin alphabet in as the nation's standard orthography, numerous contemporary Somali authors have also released novels, some of which have received worldwide acclaim.
Of these modern writers, Nuruddin Farah is the most celebrated. Books such as From a Crooked Rib and Links are considered important literary achievements, works that have earned Farah, among other accolades, the Neustadt International Prize for Literature.
Cawl is another prominent Somali writer who is best known for his Dervish era novel, Ignorance is the enemy of love. Football is the most popular sport in Somalia.
Important domestic competitions are the Somalia League and Somalia Cup , with the Somalia national football team playing internationally.
Basketball is also played in the country. In , a Somalia national bandy team was formed in Borlänge. The Somali Olympic Committee has devised a special support program to ensure continued success in future tournaments.
Somali architecture is a rich and diverse tradition of engineering and design involving multiple types of constructions and edifices, such as stone cities , castles , citadels , fortresses , mosques , mausoleums , temples , towers , monuments , cairns , megaliths , menhirs , dolmens , tombs , tumuli , steles , cisterns , aqueducts and lighthouses.
Spanning the country's ancient, medieval and early modern periods, it also embraces the fusion of Somalo-Islamic architecture with contemporary Western designs.
In ancient Somalia, pyramidical structures known in Somali as taalo were a popular burial style, with hundreds of these dry stone monuments scattered around the country today.
Houses were built of dressed stone similar to the ones in ancient Egypt. The adoption of Islam in Somalia's early medieval history brought Islamic architectural influences from Arabia and Persia.
This stimulated a shift in construction from dry stone and other related materials to coral stone, sun dried bricks , and the widespread use of limestone in Somali architecture.
Many of the new architectural designs, such as mosques, were built on the ruins of older structures, a practice that would continue over and over again throughout the following centuries.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 8 December Country in the Horn of Africa. Federal Republic of Somalia .
English Italian  . Main article: History of Somalia. Main articles: Somali Architecture and Sesea.
See also: Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland. Main article: Isaaq genocide. Main article: Geography of Somalia. Main articles: Administrative divisions of Somalia and States and regions of Somalia.
Main article: Islands of Somalia. Main article: Wildlife of Somalia. Main article: Politics of Somalia. Main article: Foreign relations of Somalia.
Main article: Somali Armed Forces. Main article: Human rights in Somalia. Main article: Economy of Somalia. See also: Agriculture in Somalia.
Main articles: Central Bank of Somalia and Somali shilling. Main articles: Mineral industry of Somalia and Oil exploration in Puntland.
The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met.
May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main articles: Communications in Somalia and Media of Somalia. Main article: Tourism in Somalia.
Main articles: Transport in Somalia and List of airports in Somalia. Main article: Demographics of Somalia. Main article: Languages of Somalia.
Largest cities or towns in Somalia. Religion in Somalia  Religion Percent Islam . Main article: Religion in Somalia. Main articles: Healthcare in Somalia and Child marriage in Somalia.
Main article: Education in Somalia. Main article: Culture of Somalia. Main article: Somali cuisine. Main article: Music of Somalia.
Main article: Literature of Somalia. Main article: Sports in Somalia. Main article: Somali architecture.
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The areas concerned amount to about a third of Ethiopia. Encyclopedia of international peacekeeping operations. Somalis are mostly camel or goat herders, and depend on their livestock to live.
In Somalia there are limited sources of drinking water and grazing land, and disputes over grazing rights, water rights, or land in general can lead to fighting between families.
Because of the clan system, the families involved will call on their clan for help, leading to a clan war.
The discovery of oil and minerals in Somalia, as well as the power and money associated with politics and business, has created more opportunities for families to get ahead, and has also created more reasons for families to have disputes.
Because Somalia does not have a working legal system, the only help a family in Somalia has to solve a dispute with another family is to get their clan involved.
The only solution to the clan wars in Somalia is a working legal system, but the only group who has succeeded in creating one is the Islamic Courts Union.
Unfortunately the Islamic Courts Union was accused of being terrorists and Ethiopia invaded Somalia to topple their government and put the government they created in power instead.
Somalis started herding camel and goats about 4, years ago, and they remain mostly herders today. Visitors from as far away as China visited Somalia, such as Zheng He.
The king of Ethiopia then took part of Ifat and added it to his kingdom, and made Ifat pay him lots of money once a year. The remains of Ifat put their kingdom back together again and renamed it Adal.
About a hundred years later, the King of Adal was deposed by an influential warlord by the name of Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi , who had lots of influence with Somali clans across the north.
He declared a Jihad against Ethiopia, brought together a huge army that included Turkish musketeers and Somali cavalry. The Somali cavalry were especially deadly because they could shoot arrows while riding their horses, something that the Mongol hordes and Japanese Samurai are also famous for.
Ahmad chose a bad time, however, because the Portuguese Empire was muscling into East Africa. They had taken over the whole east African coast up to Baraawe, and were trying to take over Mogadishu.
The Portuguese decided to help out the Ethiopians because the Ethiopians were Christians and the Portuguese did not like Muslims.
Ahmad had taken over more than half of Ethiopia when a troop of Portuguese musketeers showed up to help the Ethiopians out.
One Portuguese musketeer managed to shoot Ahmad himself, killing him. A lot of the Somali cavalry was only there because of Ahmad, so the Jihad ended and Ethiopia wound up invading Adal.
The Turks had to send an army to stop them from taking over Zeila, and Adal ended up becoming part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire.